Lymphoblastic leukemia in the blood of an 8-year-old dog.  The dog’s owner had mentioned in passing at the annual visit that the dog was not finishing every one of its meals as well as before.  We did some bloodwork as part of a well visit and our machine could not read the complete blood count.  I did a manual smear and found vast numbers of lymphocytes (the purple cells) in every field of the smear; normally you would see 2 or 3 in each field.  
Bloodwork revealed the following:
White blood cells: 496.1 (normal range 4.0 - 15.5)!!!!! with
Lymphocytes 481334 (normal 690-4500)
consistent with lymphoblastic leukemia.  Chronic forms may be slow-growing, but acute forms can come on rapidly, resulting in severe clinical signs and rapid progression of this fatal disease.

Lymphoblastic leukemia in the blood of an 8-year-old dog.  The dog’s owner had mentioned in passing at the annual visit that the dog was not finishing every one of its meals as well as before.  We did some bloodwork as part of a well visit and our machine could not read the complete blood count.  I did a manual smear and found vast numbers of lymphocytes (the purple cells) in every field of the smear; normally you would see 2 or 3 in each field.  

Bloodwork revealed the following:

White blood cells: 496.1 (normal range 4.0 - 15.5)!!!!! with

Lymphocytes 481334 (normal 690-4500)

consistent with lymphoblastic leukemia.  Chronic forms may be slow-growing, but acute forms can come on rapidly, resulting in severe clinical signs and rapid progression of this fatal disease.

Dentigerous cyst in a young adult Pug; the upper radigoraph is at the time of diagnosis, the lower radiograph is one year later.  In the first radiograph, note the blackness and hollow liquid space next to the mandibular canine (the large tooth to the right).  There is a tooth floating in the blackness, and a premolar tooth behind it with severe bone loss.  A dentigerous cyst results in expanion of fluid in the jawbone and the ultimate loss of bone structure and damage to teeth. 
The two teeth with damaged bone were removed and the cyst lining thoroughly scraped to remove any chance of the cyst returning.  One year later, bone has actually regrown over the mandibular canine and the mouth is healthier.  The remaining premolar to the left will need to be monitored however, as there is some bony lucency (bone loss) at the tip of one of its roots, and it may need to be extracted in future.

Dentigerous cyst in a young adult Pug; the upper radigoraph is at the time of diagnosis, the lower radiograph is one year later.  In the first radiograph, note the blackness and hollow liquid space next to the mandibular canine (the large tooth to the right).  There is a tooth floating in the blackness, and a premolar tooth behind it with severe bone loss.  A dentigerous cyst results in expanion of fluid in the jawbone and the ultimate loss of bone structure and damage to teeth. 

The two teeth with damaged bone were removed and the cyst lining thoroughly scraped to remove any chance of the cyst returning.  One year later, bone has actually regrown over the mandibular canine and the mouth is healthier.  The remaining premolar to the left will need to be monitored however, as there is some bony lucency (bone loss) at the tip of one of its roots, and it may need to be extracted in future.

Oronasal fistula, or pathologic passageway between the mouth and the nasal cavity, in the mouth of a dog with a tumor of unknown type.  The tumor resulted in the eating away of the hard palate and the medial migration of multiple teeth; note the exposed roots.  The dog did well with palliative care for some time before the owners decided to pursue euthanasia, but occasionally she suffered nosebleeds and food from her mouth coming out of her nose due to the communication between the mouth and sinus cavity.

Oronasal fistula, or pathologic passageway between the mouth and the nasal cavity, in the mouth of a dog with a tumor of unknown type.  The tumor resulted in the eating away of the hard palate and the medial migration of multiple teeth; note the exposed roots.  The dog did well with palliative care for some time before the owners decided to pursue euthanasia, but occasionally she suffered nosebleeds and food from her mouth coming out of her nose due to the communication between the mouth and sinus cavity.

Little veterinary things:
Accidentally taking home the clinic’s entire stock of pens… every day of your life

Little veterinary things:

Accidentally taking home the clinic’s entire stock of pens… every day of your life

thesearchisneverover:

A post about the coolest looking ovarian cyst you have ever seen.

(via vetstudent-microbiologymaniac)

#HeforShe for Vets

seeingpractice:

image

View blog on WordPress; image credit: Liv @ why-i-am-a-vet-student

If you have been on the internet in the last few days then you’ve seen Emma Watson’s inspiring and poignant speech in her new role as a goodwill ambassador for UN women. In her speech she calls out for men to take up their end of the bargain in the fight for female equality and empowerment. It’s an inspiring speech and if you haven’t seen it yet, you can watch it [here]. After signing up to the #heforshe pledge I started thinking to myself what role sexism played in my life and I kept coming back to my place as a future veterinarian.

 Anybody in vet school across the world can attest to the fact that more females are entering the profession than ever before. In my class alone, 85% of the students are female, and this is universal across western countries with a similar trend across the world. This is in stark contrast to the male-dominated profession that has been the norm historically. There are a whole assortment of theories as to why this is the case, and these range from increased academic commitment of females to more males pursuing high-income professions. In the end though the ‘why’ isn’t the important part, it’s how it’s approached which is the issue.

 I remember that in my first years of vet school, on visits to clinics in regional Australia, that I was treated differently to the female student I conducted the visits with. It wasn’t every clinic, and it certainly wasn’t every vet, but it was enough to be noticed. Comments like ‘Geez it’s great to see some male vet students coming through’ were fine – we are definitely few and far between! It was comments like ‘you had better pull this calf instead’ (when my partner had grown up on a dairy farm and was definitely far better at pulling calves than I was -and still is) that really stuck out. When it REALLY got uncomfortable was when I heard numerous theories about the failure of the profession due to there being too many women unable to run businesses. As a young student I listened to these comments come from good vets, employers, pillars of their communities, and I found it more perplexing

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(via raggedybearcat)

asker

Anonymous asked: Hi, I am a student at a tech high school where my Academy study is veterinary science. I want to be a small animal vet when I grow up, but my vet teacher thinks that I would be better at zoology. Do you think I should listen to him or go with my gut? Thanks :)

It depends very much on what your interests and skills are!  If you are interested in being a small animal vet, then you will need to have good people skills and a touch of customer service flare to really do well, since the small animals are attached to owners unless you work in shelter medicine.  As a zoologist, you could potentially spend much of your time in the field or in a lab, where you don’t necessarily have the constraints of dealing with clients.  To be a small animal vet you have to be brave enough to take responsibility when things go wrong, or give owners sad news about their animals, whereas as a researcher you may be beholden to your fellow researchers or a university/company you work for.  

If you’re not sure yet what your skills are — high school is pretty early to be deciding on these things for certain — you can get all of your vet prereqs done while doing a zoology degree.  You can also volunteer at a vet clinic during your summers to see if you really would be interested in veterinary work or if you’d rather work with animals in a different capacity.  There’s also the potential for you to do research in zoology as a veterinarian, so don’t discount combining the two if you’re passionate about both!

Aspirate from a 5-year-old dog’s enlarged lymph nodes.  The cells exhibit prominent nucleoli, irregularly shaped nuclei and marked atypia (multiple sizes).  In the center of the upper left photo is a mitotic figure, where the DNA has clumped into two sections and the cell is preparing to divide.  Mitotic figures are common in malignancy.  This dog was diagnosed with lymphoma.

Aspirate from a 5-year-old dog’s enlarged lymph nodes.  The cells exhibit prominent nucleoli, irregularly shaped nuclei and marked atypia (multiple sizes).  In the center of the upper left photo is a mitotic figure, where the DNA has clumped into two sections and the cell is preparing to divide.  Mitotic figures are common in malignancy.  This dog was diagnosed with lymphoma.

Moderate petechaie (pinpoint hemorrhages) and ecchymoses (bruising) on the skin of a 7-year-old spayed female dog.  The dog also exhibited mild petechiae on the gums.  There was no history of trauma or exposure to rat bait, and the dog’s clotting times were normal.  Bloodwork revealed 0 platelets, both on machine count and on a visual microscopic exam of the blood.  Thrombocytopenia, or absence of platelets, can result in hemorrhage from normal day to day activity and can be fatal if trauma occurs or if the condition is not recognized in time.  This patient was not yet anemic and felt normal despite the bruising.  Preliminary test results are consistent with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, where the immune system destroys its own platelets, and the patient is currently being treated with a number of immunosuppressant medications.  Treatment persists for 6-12 months at minimum and may be required for longer.

Moderate petechaie (pinpoint hemorrhages) and ecchymoses (bruising) on the skin of a 7-year-old spayed female dog.  The dog also exhibited mild petechiae on the gums.  There was no history of trauma or exposure to rat bait, and the dog’s clotting times were normal.  Bloodwork revealed 0 platelets, both on machine count and on a visual microscopic exam of the blood.  Thrombocytopenia, or absence of platelets, can result in hemorrhage from normal day to day activity and can be fatal if trauma occurs or if the condition is not recognized in time.  This patient was not yet anemic and felt normal despite the bruising.  Preliminary test results are consistent with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, where the immune system destroys its own platelets, and the patient is currently being treated with a number of immunosuppressant medications.  Treatment persists for 6-12 months at minimum and may be required for longer.

asker

Anonymous asked: have you ever spayed a cat that was pregnant? what's your opinion on "aborting" the kittens?

I have once during my shelter rotation.  The cat was nearly full-term, so the kitten fetuses looked very much like kittens.  Mostly I was just concerned with getting that giant uterus out without nicking a blood vessel, but I did feel a little sad when they went to go fetch euthanasia solution for the kittens.

However, I do not regret spaying the cat.  It was kitten season and there were many, many other kittens in the shelter.  There are so many unwanted animals in the US that I have zero qualms about spaying a pregnant animal.  If they are going to be euthanized due to lack of space, better for the animals to be euthanized as fetuses instead of being born and living in a cage until they are euthanized.  Also, the mental toll on shelter workers of euthanizing animals is much greater when those animals are adorable fluffy babies instead of fetuses in gestational sacs, and that’s something to consider as well.

If it was an owner’s animal and we had not known the animal was pregnant, I would call the owner during the procedure and give them the option to go through the pregnancy or spay the cat, and I would accept whatever their decision was.  

Severe overbite, or mandibular brachygnathism, in a dog.  The mandible is significantly shorter than it should be in a dog this size, as you can see by the upper teeth overhanging the edge of the lower lip.  You can also see in the bottom picture that the mandibular premolars are quite a bit more crowded that they should be, and the fourth premolar is rotated about 70 degrees from its normal orientation due to crowding.  The dog was acquired from a shelter with this deformity and does not have trouble eating, though the crowded premolars may be more prone to infection and bone loss in future.

Severe overbite, or mandibular brachygnathism, in a dog.  The mandible is significantly shorter than it should be in a dog this size, as you can see by the upper teeth overhanging the edge of the lower lip.  You can also see in the bottom picture that the mandibular premolars are quite a bit more crowded that they should be, and the fourth premolar is rotated about 70 degrees from its normal orientation due to crowding.  The dog was acquired from a shelter with this deformity and does not have trouble eating, though the crowded premolars may be more prone to infection and bone loss in future.

theexoticvet:

iheartvmt:

jambansoak:

medicalstate:

Tapeworm parasitic infection following daily sashimi diet for years.

The initial complaint this Chinese man presented with were a stomach ache and itchy skin. After further testing, the doctors came to the discovery that his body had been completely invaded with tapeworm parasites. 

The encysted larvae were embedded deep within the man’s tissues, save for his brain, which would have resulted in the more serious complication of neurocysticercosis.

This man turned out to be an avid sushi eater and ate raw sashimi on an almost daily basis for years. 

Is it possible because he never anthelmintic meds?
I mean eat raw but regularly on anthelmintic meds at least put some safe line isn’t it?

I don’t know anything about human dewormers, but a lot of the anthelmintics we use in animals don’t do anything for tapeworms, especially once they’re encysted in the tissues like that.

This picture and article have been circulating the internet for awhile and there is much wrong with it. 

First of all, the fish tapeworm is call Diphyllobothrium and the disease it causes in humans is Diphyllobothriasis. It happens when a human eats undercooked or raw fish that contains plerocercoids of the tapeworm. These then develop into adult tapeworms in the intestine which release proglottids and eggs into the environment and the cycle continues.

Cysticercosis, which is shown in the radiograph, is when a human being consumes eggs of the tapeworm Taenia solium. These eggs hatch and cysticerci get into the blood stream and move into the muscle tissue. Where do these eggs come from? Well, pigs are the normal host of these tapeworms. The cysticerci embed into the pig muscle tissue and when undercooked pork is eaten by humans, the cysticeri develop into adults that attach to the intestines. The adults pass proglottids containing eggs into the feces and pigs then eat the feces, the cycle continues.

When human feces containing eggs are used to fertilize crops or people don’t practice good hygiene they can infect themselves. Because humans are not the proper hosts the cysticerci embed into the muscle tissue and die. The body tries to wall them off by calcifying them and you end up with what you see in the radiographs.

So while you can get a type of tapeworm from eating raw fish, it won’t cause cysticercosis. You have to eat foods contaminated with human feces containing pig tapeworm eggs.

Thanks for the update! It’s been a while since parasitology, and while I knew there *were* fish-borne tapeworms I didn’t research them thoroughly before reblogging this.

asker

Anonymous asked: I love your blog and i am vet to be.. Your blog give me so mich info regarding veterinary field other than my country. I m from msia by the way. May i ask question if i have any?-hanim-

Certainly!  Ask away, I am glad the blog is able to be helpful :)

iheartvmt:

jambansoak:

medicalstate:

Tapeworm parasitic infection following daily sashimi diet for years.

The initial complaint this Chinese man presented with were a stomach ache and itchy skin. After further testing, the doctors came to the discovery that his body had been completely invaded with tapeworm parasites. 

The encysted larvae were embedded deep within the man’s tissues, save for his brain, which would have resulted in the more serious complication of neurocysticercosis.

This man turned out to be an avid sushi eater and ate raw sashimi on an almost daily basis for years. 

Is it possible because he never anthelmintic meds?
I mean eat raw but regularly on anthelmintic meds at least put some safe line isn’t it?

I don’t know anything about human dewormers, but a lot of the anthelmintics we use in animals don’t do anything for tapeworms, especially once they’re encysted in the tissues like that.

Perianal mass in a senior, unneutered male dog.  The presence of testosterone can often contribute to diseases in the perineal region of the dog, such as perianal adenomas and perineal hernias.  Neutering the dog  can sometimes help masses in this region regress.  The dog was neutered and the growth will be monitored to see if it persists.

Perianal mass in a senior, unneutered male dog.  The presence of testosterone can often contribute to diseases in the perineal region of the dog, such as perianal adenomas and perineal hernias.  Neutering the dog  can sometimes help masses in this region regress.  The dog was neutered and the growth will be monitored to see if it persists.